LINQ Deferred Execution & Lambda Methods for providing Simple Stats (Part II)

This is part 2 in a series of posts on Linq & Lambda capabilities in C# 

Deferred Execution

So lets take a minute to talk about deferred execution. You may here this referred to as Lazy Execution as well. But in a nutshell what this means is that when you write a linq or lambda query against a collection or list, the execution of that query doesn’t actually happen until the point where you need to access the resuts. Let’s look at a simple example.

var ienum = Enumerable.Range(1, 10).ToList();

var query = from i in ienum
            where i%2 == 0
            select i;


//prints 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 20, 30

So why does it print out 20 and 30. This is deferred execution in practice. At the point where you write your query (var query) the query is not actually executed against your datasource (ienum). After the query is setup, more data is added to your data source, and the query is only actually executed at the point where the results need to be evaluated (SuperConsole.WriteLine)

This holds true in a number of other Linq Scenarios. In Linq-to-Sql or Linq-to-Entity Framework, execution of the Sql Query is only sent to the database at the point where you need to evaluate your queries. It’s important to understand this so that queries don’t go out of scope before being executed, so that un-executed queries aren’t inadvertently passed to other parts or layers in your application and so that you don’t end up introducing N+1 problems where you think your working on data in memory but in actual fact, your performing multiple executions over and over in a loop. If you do need to make your queries “Greedy” and force them to execute there and then, you can wrap them in parenthesis and immediately call .ToList() on them to force the execution.

Min, Max, Count & Average

Linq has a number of convenient built in methods for getting various numeric stats about the data your working on. Consider a collection of Movies which you want to Query.

public class Movie
    public string Title { get; set; }
    public double Rating { get; set; }


var movies = new List
        new Movie() {Title = "Die Hard", Rating = 4.0},
        new Movie() {Title = "Commando", Rating = 5.0},
        new Movie() {Title = "Matrix Revolutions", Rating = 2.1}

Console.WriteLine(movies.Min(m => m.Rating));
//prints 2.1

Console.WriteLine(movies.Max(m => m.Rating));
//prints 5

Console.WriteLine(movies.Average(m => m.Rating));
//prints 3.7

//prints 3

Min, Max and Average are all fairly straight forward, finding the Minimum, Maximum and Average movie rating values respectively. It’s worth mentioning with regards the Count implementations that there are different “versions” of the count implementation depending on the underlying data structure you are operating on. The Count property is a property of the List class are returns the current number of items in that collection. The Count() method is an extension method on the IEnumerable interface which can be executed on any IEnumerable structure regardless of implementation.

In general LINQ’s Count will be slower and is an O(N) operation while List.Count and Array.Length are both guaranteed to be O(1). However in some cases LINQ will special case the IEnumerable parameter by casting to certain interface types such as IList or ICollection. It will then use that Count method to do an actual Count() operation. So it will go back down to O(1). But you still pay the minor overhead of the cast and interface call. Ref: []

This is important as well if you are testing your collections to see if they are empty. People coming from versions of .NET previous to Generics would use the Count or Length properties of a collection to see if they were empty. i.e.

if(list.Count == 0)
if(array.Length == 0)

Linq however provides another method to test for contents called Any(). It can be used to evaluate whether the collection is empty, or if the collection has any items which validate a specific filter.

if(list.Any()) //equivalent of count == 0
if(list.Any(m => m.Rating == 5.0)) //if it contains any top rated movies.

If you are starting with something that has a .Length or .Count (such as ICollection, IList, List, etc) – then this will be the fastest option, since it doesn’t need to go through the GetEnumerator()/MoveNext()/Dispose() sequence required by Any() to check for a non-empty IEnumerable sequence. For just IEnumerable, then Any() will generally be quicker, as it only has to look at one iteration. However, note that the LINQ-to-Objects implementation of Count() does check for ICollection (using .Count as an optimisation) – so if your underlying data-source is directly a list/collection, there won’t be a huge difference. Don’t ask me why it doesn’t use the non-generic ICollection… Of course, if you have used LINQ to filter it etc (Where etc), you will have an iterator-block based sequence, and so this ICollection optimisation is useless. In general with IEnumerable : stick with Any() Ref: []

Next post, we’ll look at some different mechanisms for filtering and transforming our queries.

~Eoin C

Handy LINQ & Lambda Methods and Extensions (Part I)

The System.Linq namespace contains a fantastic set of utility extension methods for filtering, ordering & manipulating the contents of your collections and objects. In the following posts I’ll go through some of the most useful ones (in my humble opinion) and how you might use them in your C# solutions

This is part 1 in a series of posts on Linq & Lambda capabilities in C# 

Before we start, here’s a handy static method to print your resulting collections to the console so you can quickly verify the results.

public class SuperConsole
    public static void WriteLine<T>(IEnumerable<T> list, bool includeCarriageReturnBetweenItems =false)
        var seperator = includeCarriageReturnBetweenItems ? ",\n" : ", ";
        var result = string.Join(seperator, list);


The System.Linq.Enumerable type has 2 very useful static methods on it for quickly generating a sequence of items. Enumerable.Range & Enumerable.Repeat. The Range method allows you to quickly generate a sequential list of integers from a given starting point for a given number of items.

IEnumerable<int> range = Enumerable.Range(1, 10);
//prints "1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10"

So why is this useful, well you could use it to quickly generate a pre-initialised list of integers rather than new’ing up a list and then iterating over it to populate it. Or you could use it to replicate for(;;) behavior. e.g.

for (int i = 1; i <= 10; i++) 

Enumerable.Range(1, 10).ToList().ForEach(i =>

Repeat is similar but is not limited to integers. You can generate a Sequence of a given length with the same default value in every item. Imagine you wanted to create a list of 10 strings all initialised with a default string of “ABC”;

var myList = Enumerable.Repeat("ABC", 10).ToList();

Item Conversion

There are also a few handy ways to convert/cast items built into the System.Linq namespace. The Cast<T> extension method allows you to cast a list of variables from one type to another as long as a valid cast is available. This can be useful for quickly changing a collection of super types into their base types.

var integers = Enumerable.Range(1, 5);
var objects = integers.Cast<object>().ToList();


//1, 2, 3, 4, 5

But what if a valid implicit cast isn’t available. What if we wanted to convert our collection of integers into a collection of strings with a ‘:’ suffix. Thankfully Linq has us covered with it’s ConvertAll Method on List

var integers = Enumerable.Range(1, 5);
var converter = new Converter<int, string>(input => string.Format("{0}: ", input));
var results = integers.ToList().ConvertAll(converter);

SuperConsole.WriteLine(results, true);

In the next post, we’ll look at some the lazy & deferred execution capabilities of LINQ and some useful methods for performing quick calculations and manipulations on our collections.

~Eoin C

Implementing HTML Formatted Emails in the Enterprise Library Logging Block

Enterprise LibraryThe Microsoft Patterns & Practices Enterprise Library contains a number of useful applications blocks for simplifying things like DataAcces, Logging & Exception Handling in your .NET Applications. Recently we had a requirement to add HTML based formatting to the Email TraceListener in the Logging Application Block, something that’s unfortunately missing from the base functionality. Thankfully, Enterprise Library is an open source code plex project so implementing a custom solution is a relatively trivial task. The email tracelistener functionality is contained in 3 main files: EmailTraceListener – The actual listener which you add to your configuration EmailTraceListenerData – The object representing the configuration settings EmailMessage – The wrapper object around a LogMessage which gets sent via email. Unfortunately because of the the way these classes are implemented in the EnterpriseLibrary Logging Block, they are not easily extended due to dependencies on Private Variables and Internal classes in the EnterpriseLibaray Logging Assembly so they need to be fully implemented in your own solution.

Implementing a Solution

Step 1 was to take a copy of these three files and place them in my own Library Solution. I prefixed the name of each of them with Html; HtmlEmailTraceListener, HtmlEmailTraceListenerData and HtmlEmailMessage. Other code needed to be cleaned up including removing some dependencies on the internal ResourceDependency attributes used to decorate properties within the class & tidying up the Xml Documentation Comments. The main change was then to enable the IsBodyHtml flag on the mail message itself. This was done in the CreateMailMessage method of the HtmlEmailMessage

protected MailMessage CreateMailMessage()
	string header = GenerateSubjectPrefix(configurationData.SubjectLineStarter);
	string footer = GenerateSubjectSuffix(configurationData.SubjectLineEnder);

	string sendToSmtpSubject = header + logEntry.Severity.ToString() + footer;

	MailMessage message = new MailMessage();
	string[] toAddresses = configurationData.ToAddress.Split(';');
	foreach (string toAddress in toAddresses)
		message.To.Add(new MailAddress(toAddress));

	message.From = new MailAddress(configurationData.FromAddress);

	message.Body = (formatter != null) ? formatter.Format(logEntry) : logEntry.Message;
	message.Subject = sendToSmtpSubject;
	message.BodyEncoding = Encoding.UTF8;
	message.IsBodyHtml = true;

	return message;

Using your new solution

Once implemented it’s simply a matter of reconfiguring your app/web.config logging sections to use the new types you’ve created instead of the original Enterprise Library types. You need to change the type and listenerDataType properties of your Email Listener in the &gl;listeners@gt; section of your config.

      <!-- Please update the following Settings: toAddress, subjectLineStarter, subjectLineEnder-->
      <add name="EmailLog"
           subjectLineStarter="Test Console - "
           subjectLineEnder=" Alert"
           type="YourLibrary.YourNamespace.HtmlEmailTraceListener, YourLibrary, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=0000000000000000"
           listenerDataType="YourLibrary.YourNamespace.HtmlEmailTraceListenerData,  YourLibrary, Version=, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=0000000000000000"
           traceOutputOptions="Callstack" />

You’ll also need to ensure that you’ve escaped your Html formatted textFormatter template in the formatters section of your code. i.e. replacing <html> with &lt;html&gt;

      <add name="EmailFormatter" 
              type="Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Logging.Formatters.TextFormatter, Microsoft.Practices.EnterpriseLibrary.Logging, Version=5.0.414.0, Culture=neutral, PublicKeyToken=31bf3856ad364e35" 
                  &lt;table border=&quot;1&quot; style=&quot;border: solid 1px #000000; border-collapse:collapse;&quot;&gt;
                  &lt;tr&gt;&lt;td&gt;Local TimeStamp&lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{timestamp(local)}&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;
                  &lt;tr&gt;&lt;td&gt;Local Machine&lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{localMachine}&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;
                  &lt;tr&gt;&lt;td&gt;Local Process Name&lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{localProcessName}&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;
                  &lt;tr&gt;&lt;td&gt;Local Process&lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;{localProcessId}&lt;/td&gt;&lt;/tr&gt;
                  &lt;tr&gt;&lt;td&gt;Extended Properties&lt;/td&gt;&lt;td&gt;
                  &lt;table border=&quot;1&quot; style=&quot;border: solid 1px #000000; border-collapse:collapse;&quot;&gt;
" />


All done. Now you can happily send email log messages in HTML format via your Application Logging calls.


Using Signlar to Publish Dashboard Data


Recently David Fowler announced the release of the Signlar 1.1.0 Beta Release. So I decided to do some dabbling to get a prototype application up and running. The solution is pretty simple. It uses a SignlaR hub to broadcast the current Processor % usage, and renders it in a nice visual graph using HighCharts.


[important]The completed solution can be found on GitHub at [/important]

First things first we’ll need a bare bones web application which we can pull in the relevant nuget packages into. I started with a basic empty web application running under .NET 4.5. Installing the signlar & highcharts packages is a breeze. Open up the PowerShell Nuget Console and run the following commands. HighCharts gets installed as a solution level package so you’ll need to manually copy the relevant JavaScript files to your scripts directory in your application.

Install-Package HighCharts
Install-Package Microsoft.AspNet.SignalR

The Hub

Signalr relies on a “Hub” to push data back to all the connected Clients. I’ve created a “ProcessorDataHub” which implements the Signalr Base Hub to manage this process. It contains a constructor for Initializing a static instance of my ProcessorTicker class, and a start method to start the thread within the ticker. The HubName attribute specifies the name which the hub will be accessible by on the Javascript side.

public class ProcessorDataHub : Hub
    private readonly ProcessorTicker _ticker;

    public ProcessorDataHub() : this(ProcessorTicker.Instance) { }

    public ProcessorDataHub(ProcessorTicker ticker)
        _ticker = ticker;

    public void Start()

The ProcessorTicker

The heavy lifting is then done by the ProcessorTicker. This is instantiated with a reference to the Clients object, a HubConnectionContext which contains dynamic objects allowing you to push notifications to some or all connected client side callers. The implementation is fairlly simple using a System.Thread.Timer which reads the current processor level from a peformance counter once per second, and Broadcasts that value to the client side.

Since the Clients.All connection is dynamic, calling “updateCpuUsage” on this object will work at runtime, so long as the relevant client side wiring up to that expected method has been done correctly.


The Client Side

One change since the previous version of SignalR is the requirement for the developer to manually & explicity wireup the dynamically generated Javascript endpoint where SignalR creates it’s javascript. This can be done on Application Start by calling the RouteTable..Routes.MapHubs() method

protected void Application_Start(object sender, EventArgs e)

Finally we’re ready to consume these published messages on our Client Page. Signlar requires the following javascript includes in the Head Section of your page.

<script type="text/javascript" src="/Signalr/Scripts/jquery-1.6.4.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="/Signalr/Scripts/jquery.signalR-1.1.0-beta1.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="/Signalr/signalr/hubs"></script>

With those inplace, we wire up our own custom Javascript function to access our ProcessorTicker, start the Hub on a button click, and begin receiving and processing the

    <script type="text/javascript">
    $(function () {
        var ticker = $.connection.processorTicker;

        //HighCharts JS Omitted..

        ticker.client.updateCpuUsage = function (percentage) {
            $("#processorTicker").text("" + percentage + "%");

            var x = (new Date()).getTime(), // current time
                y = percentage,
                series = chart.series[0];

            series.addPoint([x, y], true, true);

        // Start the connection
        $.connection.hub.start(function () {

        // Wire up the buttons
        $("#start").click(function () {

The result is that I can fire up a number of separate browser instances and they’ll all get the correct values published to them from the hub over a persistent long running response. Obviously this an extremely powerful system that could be applied to Live Operations Systems where dash boards have traditionally relied on polling the server at some regular interval.

Live Processor Data to Multiple Browsers via SignalR
Live Processor Data to Multiple Browsers via SignalR

~Eoin C

Could not load type ‘System.Runtime.CompilerServices. ExtensionAttribute’ from assembly mscorlib when using ILMerge

Works On My Machine
Works On My Machine

I ran into a pretty horrible problem with ILMerge this week when attempting to build and deploy a windows service I’d been working on. While the merged executable & subsequently created MSI worked fine on my own machine, it gave the following rather nasty problem when run on a colleagues machine.


Could not load type ‘System.Runtime.CompilerServices.ExtensionAttribute’ from assembly mscorlib


It turns out that between .NET 4.0 & .NET 4.5; this attribute was moved from System.Core.dll to mscorlib.dll. While that sounds like a rather nasty breaking change in a framework version that is supposed to be 100% compatible, a [TypeForwardedTo] attribute is supposed to make this difference unobservable.

Unfortunately things breakwhen ILMerge is used to merge several assemblies into one. When I merge my .NET 4.0 app, with some other assemblies on the machine with .NET 4.5 installed, it sets the targetplatform for ILMerge to .NET 4.0. This in turn looks into C:\windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319 to find the relevant DLLs. But since .NET 4.5 is an in place upgrade, these have all been updated with their .NET 4.5 counter parts.

Breaking Changes
“Every well intended change has at least one failure mode that nobody thought of”

You need to specific that ILMerge should use the older .NET 4.0 reference assemblies which are still available in C:\Program Files\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework\.NETFramework\v4.0. (or program files x86) if your on a 64-bit box). There’s more info on the stackoverflow question where I finally found a solution and in a linked blog post by Matt Wrock.


To override this behavior you need to specify this target platform directory as part of your ILMerge command. e.g.

    /targetplatform:"v4,C:\Program Files (x86)\Reference Assemblies\Microsoft\Framework\.NETFramework\v4.0"
I had previously been using the ILMerge.MSBuild.Tasks tool from nuget but unfortunately, this library doesn’t currently support specifying the TargetPlatform. There’s an unactioned open item on their issue tracker in google code.